Friday 31st of May


Trinity College Dublin


Shai Wyborski

Keynote Speaker

Program Beyond the Chain 2024

Program Beyond the Chain 2024

The workshop is co-located with IEEE International Conference on Blockchain and Cryptocurrency (IEEE ICBC 2024) and is held on Friday 31st of May, 2024 at Trinity College Dublin. 

Submission Deadline 05/03/2024
Reviews Released 31/03/2024
Rebuttals Due 03/04/2024
Acceptance Notification 05/04/2024
Camera Ready 12/04/2024
Workshop 31/05/2024

Workshop program


Keynote: From Chains to DAGs: A Tour of PoW Protocols

S. Wyborski.


Secure Transmission of Immutable Data for Low-Power, Long-Range Wireless IoT Services

A. Baumgartner, N. Akkari, S. Barua, T. Bauschert.


A Study on Shared Objects in Sui Smart Contracts

R. Overko


Name Management Using IOTA in ICN

T. Okada, N. Kamiyama.


SoK: DAG-based Consensus Protocols

M. Raikwar, S. Müller, N. Polianskii.

Call For Papers

This workshop delves into the field of DAG-based DLTs, focusing on their potential for enhanced scalability and performance over traditional blockchains. It aims to gather experts from academia and industry to explore advancements in DAG structures, particularly in consensus protocols like Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT) and Nakamoto consensus. Key topics include various writing access modes (lottery-based, committee-based, open, permissioned), their impact on fairness, security, and performance, and the challenges in developing robust and comparable performance metrics. Emphasis will also be placed on Maximum Extractable Value (MEV), its centralization effects, and implications for system robustness and wealth distribution.

The workshop encourages discussions on new DAG-based DLT designs, security analyses, transaction mechanisms, and applications across diverse domains, fostering an exchange of ideas and insights on the trade-offs between fairness, security, and performance in DAG DLTs. Topics of interest include (but are not limited to):

  • New DAG-based DLT designs and implementations

  • Formal description and security analysis of DAG-based systems

  • Performance evaluation and comparison of different DAG-based DLTs

  • Security and privacy challenges in DAG-based DLTs

  • MEV in DAG-based systems

  • Transaction fee mechanisms in DAG-based DLTs

  • Writing access models in DAG-based DLTs

  • Parallel execution and dependency tracking in smart contracts

  • Interoperability and standardization in DAG-based DLTs

  • Practical applications of DAG-based DLTs in various domains

Submission guidelines

Workshop Chairs

luigi vigneri
Luigi Vigneri

IOTA Foundation

Sebastian Mueller media
Sebastian Mueller

Univ. Aix-Marseille

pietro ferraro
Pietro Ferraro

Imperial College London

Nikita media
Nikita Polianskii

IOTA Foundation

Technical Program Committee

Darcy Camargo

IOTA Foundation

Teodoro Montanaro

Università del Salento

Andreas Penzkofer


Serguei Popov

University of Porto

Mayank Raikwar

University of Oslo

Alexandre Reiffers-Masson

IMT Atlantique

Luigi Patrono

Università del Salento

Andrew Lewis-Pye

London School of Economics and Political Science

Olivia Saa

IOTA Foundation

Giulia Scaffino

Vienna University of Technology

Stefan Schulte

Hamburg University of Technology

Robert Shorten

Imperial College London

Yan Tao

UZH Zürich

Nicolò Vallarano

UZH Zürich

Roman Vitenberg

University of Oslo

Yury Yanovich

Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology

Beyond the Chain 2023

Beyond the Chain 2023 was the first edition of the workshop. This event was co-located with BLOCKCHAIN Congress and was held on July 13th in Guimaraes, Portugal. The list of accepted papers can be found below:

Welcome To The Tangle: An Empirical Analysis Of IOTA Ledger In The Chrysalis Stage

P. He, T. Yan, C. Huang, N. Vallarano and C. Tessone.


The Tangle, the distributed ledger of IOTA, is built on a directed acyclic graph (DAG) where the nodes represent messages, and the edges correspond to reference relations. This feature of the Tangle makes it suitable for analysis using network science methods. While previous research on the Tangle has mainly focused on stability, security, scalability, and the forthcoming IOTA Coordicide update, there is limited empirical research on the evolution of the Tangle, particularly during the Chrysalis stage (IOTA 1.5). To address this gap in the literature, our study aims to develop workflows for collecting IOTA Tangle data and transaction data in the Chrysalis stage, conduct a comprehensive analysis to examine the features of messages and reconstruct the Tangle graph to study its characteristics from a network science viewpoint. Our study is the first to illuminate activities and information transferred on the Tangle, as well as its graph characteristics during the Chrysalis stage, which can enhance our comprehension of its functionality and contribute to the improvement of the Tangle’s performance in the upcoming upgrades.

View Paper

Performance Analysis Of The IOTA Chrysalis On Heterogeneous Devices

M. Waleed, K. E. Skouby, and S. Kosta.


Existing Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLTs) based models like blockchain pose scalability and performance challenges for IoT systems due to resource-demanding Proof of Work (PoW), slow transaction confirmation rates, and high costs. Against a need to adopt a viable approach, especially for low-power IoT devices, IOTA emerges as a promising technology, leveraging the Direct Acyclic Graph (DAG) based approach called Tangle for IoT-focused applications. In this paper, we design a system enabling secure data exchange between IoT devices on IOTA Chrysalis, the latest version. We perform extensive experiments on two machines, a Workstation PC and Raspberry Pi, to demonstrate the performance gap between powerful and low-power devices. Our findings show that even low-power devices, such as Raspberry Pi, perform well with small payload sizes on the Chrysalis network but face challenges with larger payloads. We observe that variation in transmission time increases as payload size grows, indicating the impact of PoW complexity, but it still is feasible for Raspberry Pi. We further validated our experimental setup to ensure the validity and accuracy of our approach through discussions with the IOTA Foundation’s technical team.

View Paper

“Topology And The Tangle: How The Underlying Network Topology Influences The Confirmation Of Messages In IOTA”

B. Kraner, N. Vallarano, and C. Tessone.


We present an agent-based model of the IOTA system to provide an estimate of block finality on the Tangle. Our simulation framework is based on the Gillespie agent-based model. Our approach provides insights into the behavior of the IOTA system and can be used to explore different scenarios and test potential improvements. The results of our simulation show that the finality and confirmation time of blocks on the Tangle are affected by the underlying topology of the peer-to-peer network. Depending on the topology, the blocks of higher Mana nodes may have an advantage in gaining approval weight.

View Paper

Bridging Protocols In DAG-Based DLTs: Facilitating Interaction Between IOTA And Other DLT Networks

C. Alvarez, Y. Mezquita, and D. Valdeolmillos.


While Distributed Ledger Technologies offer (DLT) increased security, transparency, and resilience, the decentralized ecosystem is currently fragmented, lacking interoperability between different DLT platforms. Bridging protocols act as a bridge between different DLT networks, enabling the transfer of assets and data across disparate systems. This paper explores the development of bridging protocols in DAG-based DLTs, with a focus on facilitating interaction between IOTA and other networks. This paper offers insights into the characteristics and requirements of effective bridging protocols, which are crucial for realizing the full potential of DLTs and unlocking new use cases for decentralized systems.

View Paper

An Attack Resilient Policy On The Tip Pool For A DAG-Based Distributed Ledger

L. Zhao, A. Cullen, S. Mueller, and O. Saa.


This paper discusses congestion control and inconsistency problems in DAG-based distributed ledgers and proposes an additional filter to mitigate these issues. Unlike traditional blockchains, DAG-based DLTs use a directed acyclic graph structure to organize transactions, allowing higher scalability and efficiency. However, this also introduces challenges in controlling the rate at which blocks are added to the network and preventing the influence of spam attacks. To address these challenges, we propose a filter to limit the tip pool size and to avoid referencing old blocks. Furthermore, we present experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of this filter in reducing the negative impacts of various attacks. Our approach offers a lightweight and efficient solution for managing the flow of blocks in DAG-based DLTs, which can enhance the consistency and reliability of these systems.

View Paper

Enhancing Social Compliance With An IOTA Tangle-Enabled Smart Mask System

L. Zhao, P. Ferraro, and R. Shorten.


In this paper, we present an overview of a wearable smart-mask prototype that is fully described in [1]. The purpose of the mask is to encourage people to comply with social distancing norms, through the use of incentives. The smart mask is designed to monitor Carbon Dioxide and Total Volatile Organic Compounds concentrations. The IOTA Tangle ensures that the data is secure and immutable and here IOTA Tangle acts as a communication backbone for the incentive mechanism. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation based on indoor positioning, paired with Monte-Carlo simulations, is developed to demonstrate the efficacy of the designed prototype.

View Paper